Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry Pi 4 image for joining the Medalla multi-client testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator (Prysm, Teku, Lighthouse and Nimbus clients included)
TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 medalla testnet. The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Medalla multi-client testnet , from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing, managing and running the Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients. You will only need to choose an Eth2.0 client, start the beacon chain service and activate / run the validator. Note: this is an update for our previous Raspberry Pi 4 Eth2 image  so some of the instructions are directly taken from there.
Based on Ubuntu 20.04 64bit.
Automatic USB disk partitioning and formatting
Adds swap memory (ZRAM kernel module + a swap file)
Changes the hostname to something like “ethnode-e2a3e6fe” based on MAC hash
Automatically syncs Eth1 Goerli testnet (Geth)
Includes an APT repository for installing and upgrading Ethereum software
Includes 4 Eth2.0 clients
Includes EF eth2.0-deposit-cli tool
Includes 5 monitoring dashboards based on Grafana / Prometheus
Geth: 1.9.20  (official binary) configured for syncing Goerli Testnets
Eth2.0-deposit-cli: 0.2.1 (bundled) 
Prysm: 1.0.0alpha24 
Beacon Chain (official binary)
Validator binary (official binary)
Teku: 0.12.4alpha+20200821 (compiled) 
Lighthouse 0.2.8 (official binary) 
Nimbus 0.5.0 (compiled) 
Grafana 7.0.4 (official package) 
INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE
RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
Raspberry 4 (model B) - 4GB or 8GB (8 GB RAM highly recommended)
MicroSD Card (16 GB Class 10 minimum)
SSD USB 3.0 disk (see storage section)
A case with heatsink and fan (Optional but strongly recommended)
USB keyboard, Monitor and HDMI cable (micro-HDMI) (Optional)
STORAGE You will need an SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options: Use an USB portable SSD disk such as the Samsung T5 Portable SSD. Use an USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Case with a SSD Disk. In our case we used a Inateck 2.5 Hard Drive Enclosure FE2011. Make sure to buy a case with an UASP compliant chip, particularly, one of these: JMicron (JMS567 or JMS578) or ASMedia (ASM1153E). In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of your node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue). IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION 1.- Download the image: http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip SHA256 149cb9b020d1c49fcf75c00449c74c6f38364df1700534b5e87f970080597d87 2.- Flash the image Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file. Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher  Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running: sudo fdisk -l You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image: unzip ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress 3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port). 4.- Power on the device The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7-8 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to install the Medalla setup (it will reboot again) 5.- Log in You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice. 6.- Forward 30303 port in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model. You will need to open additional ports as well depending on the Eth2.0 client you’ve chosen. 7.- Getting console output You can see what’s happening in the background by typing: sudo tail -f /valog/syslog 8.- Grafana Dashboards There are 5 Grafana dashboards available to monitor the Medalla node (see section “Grafana Dashboards” below).
The Medalla Eth2.0 multi-client testnet
Medalla is the official Eth2.0 multi-client testnet according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.2  release (which is aimed to be the final) . In order to run a Medalla Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
An Eth1.0 node running the Goerli testnet in sync . Geth in our case.
An Eth2.0 Beacon Chain connected to the Eth1.0 node. You will need to choose a client here (Prysm, Lighthouse, Teku or Nimbus)
An Eth2.0 Validator connected to the Beacon Chain (same client as the Beacon Chain)
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 setup. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts to sync the Goerli testnet. Follow these steps to enable your Eth2.0 Ethereum node: CREATE THE VALIDATOR KEYS AND MAKE THE DEPOSIT We need to get 32 Goerli ETH (fake ETH) ir order to make the deposit in the Eth2.0 contract and run the validator. The easiest way of getting ETH is by joining Prysm Discord's channel. Open Metamask , select the Goerli Network (top of the window) and copy your ETH Address. Go to: https://discord.com/invite/YMVYzv6 And open the “request-goerli-eth” channel (on the left) Type: !send $YOUR_ETH_ADDRESS (replace it with the one copied on Metamask) You will receive enough ETH to run 1 validator. Now it is time to create your validator keys and the deposit information. For your convenience we’ve packaged the official Eth2 launchpad tool . Go to the EF Eth2.0 launchpad site: https://medalla.launchpad.ethereum.org/ And click “Get started” Read and accept all warnings. In the next screen, select 1 validator and go to your Raspberry Pi console. Under the ethereum account run: cd && deposit --num_validators 1 --chain medalla Choose your mnemonic language and type a password for keeping your keys safe. Write down your mnemonic password, press any key and type it again as requested. Now you have 2 Json files under the validator_keys directory. A deposit data file for sending the 32 ETH along with your validator public key to the Eth1 chain (goerli testnet) and a keystore file with your validator keys. Back to the Launchpad website, check "I am keeping my keys safe and have written down my mnemonic phrase" and click "Continue". It is time to send the 32 ETH deposit to the Eth1 chain. You need the deposit file (located in your Raspberry Pi). You can, either copy and paste the file content and save it as a new file in your desktop or copy the file from the Raspberry to your desktop through SSH. 1.- Copy and paste: Connected through SSH to your Raspberry Pi, type: cat validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE-ID.json (replace $FILE-ID with yours) Copy the content (the text in square brackets), go back to your desktop, paste it into your favourite editor and save it as a json file. Or 2.- Ssh: From your desktop, copy the file: scp [email protected]$YOUR_RASPBERRYPI_IP:/home/ethereum/validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE_ID.json /tmp Replace the variables with your data. This will copy the file to your desktop /tmp directory. Upload the deposit file Now, back to the Launchpad website, upload the deposit_data file and select Metamask, click continue and check all warnings. Continue and click “Initiate the Transaction”. Confirm the transaction in Metamask and wait for the confirmation (a notification will pop up shortly). The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (that includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be enabled. Congrats!, you just started your validator activation process. CHOOSE AN ETH2.0 CLIENT Time to choose your Eth2.0 client. We encourage you to run Lighthouse, Teku or Nimbus as Prysm is the most used client by far and diversity is key to achieve a resilient and healthy Eth2.0 network. Once you have decided which client to run (as said, try to run one with low network usage), you need to set up the clients and start both, the beacon chain and the validator. These are the instructions for enabling each client (Remember, choose just one Eth2.0 client out of 4): LIGHTHOUSE ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 9000 port in your router (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the beacon chain Under the ethereum account, run: sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-beacon sudo systemctl start lighthouse-beacon 3.- Start de validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: lighthouse account validator import --directory=/home/ethereum/validator_keys Then, type your previously defined password and run: sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-validator sudo systemctl start lighthouse-validator The Lighthouse beacon chain and validator are now enabled PRYSM ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 13000 and 12000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the beacon chain Under the ethereum account, run: sudo systemctl enable prysm-beacon sudo systemctl start prysm-beacon 3.- Start de validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: validator accounts-v2 import --keys-dir=/home/ethereum/validator_keys Accept the default wallet path and enter a password for your wallet. Now enter the password previously defined. Lastly, set up your password and start the client: echo "$YOUR_PASSWORD" > /home/ethereum/validator_keys/prysm-password.txt sudo systemctl enable prysm-validator sudo systemctl start prysm-validator The Prysm beacon chain and the validator are now enabled. TEKU ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 9151 port (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator Under the Ethereum account, check the name of your keystore file: ls /home/ethereum/validator_keys/keystore* Set the keystore file name in the teku config file (replace the $KEYSTORE_FILE variable with the file listed above) sudo sed -i 's/changeme/$KEYSTORE_FILE/' /etc/ethereum/teku.conf Set the password previously entered: echo "yourpassword" > validator_keys/teku-password.txt Start the beacon chain and the validator: sudo systemctl enable teku sudo systemctl start teku The Teku beacon chain and validator are now enabled. NIMBUS ETH2.0 CLIENT 1.- Port forwarding You need to open the 19000 port (both UDP and TCP) 2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account: beacon_node deposits import /home/ethereum/validator_keys --data-dir=/home/ethereum/.nimbus --log-file=/home/ethereum/.nimbus/nimbus.log Enter the password previously defined and run: sudo systemctl enable nimbus sudo systemctl start nimbus The Nimbus beacon chain and validator are now enabled. WHAT's NEXT Now you need to wait for the Eth1 blockchain and the beacon chain to get synced. In a few hours the validator will get enabled and put into a queue. These are the validator status that you will see until its final activation:
DEPOSITED (the beacon chain detected the 32 ETH deposit with your validator public key)
PENDING (you are in a queue for being activated)
Finally, it will get activated and the staking process will start. Congratulations!, you join the Medalla Eth2.0 multiclient testnet!
We configured 5 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
Lots of info here. You can see for example if Geth is in sync by checking (in the Blockchain section) if Headers, Receipts and Blocks fields are aligned or find Eth2.0 chain info.
Updating the software
We will be keeping the Eth2.0 clients updated through Debian packages in order to keep up with the testnet progress. Basically, you need to update the repo and install the packages through the apt command. For instance, in order to update all packages you would run: sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install geth teku nimbus prysm-beacon prysm-validator lighthouse-beacon lighthouse-validator Please follow us on Twitter in order to get regular updates and install instructions. https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM
Disclaimer: This is my arbitrary summary for myself, so there could be some misunderstandings. If you want the full picture, I recommend reading the full thread. But, for a guy who just settles with 'less than perfect' summary, why not sharing my own? Billy-IF All the key research questions in coordicide have been answered. The challenges lying are implementing and testing our solution. We are implementing our solution into the Pollen Testnet and typing it up into our research specifications**(the specifications, while not complete, will hopefully be made publicly available soon).** **After these tasks are done, our solution will go through a rigorous testing phase.**During this time, we will collect performance data, look for attack vectors, and tune the parameters. domsch the only way for IOTA and crypto-currencies in general to be adopted is via clear and strong regulatory guidelines and frameworks. We often have the situation where a company reaches out to us and wants to use the IOTA token, but they are simply not able to due to uncertainties in regards to taxes, accounting, legal and regulatory questions. The EU is taking a great stance with their new proposal (called MICA) to provide exactly this type of regulatory clarity and guidance we need. So we are very happy about that and see this as a great development for the adoption of IOTA. We are very active in INATBA (in fact Julie is still on the board), are in the Executive Committee of the Digital Chamber of Commerce (https://digitalchamber.org) and are actively working with other regulatory bodies around the world.I think thatespecially in 2021, we will be much more pro-active with our outreach and efforts to push for more regulatory guidance (for the IOTA Token, for Tokenization, Smart Contracts, etc.). We are already talking with companies to start case studies around what it means to use the IOTA token - so that will be exciting. domsch actual product development, will really help us to convince regulators and lawmakers of what IOTA is intended for and where its potential lies. DavidSonstebo We are actively participating in regulatory matters via entities such as INATBA, as well as with local regulators in individual countries to help shape regulations to favor the adoption of crypto. once the use cases can display real-world value, then deployments will happen regardless. serguei_popov "The multiverse" is quite an ingenious and promising idea that has many components. Actually, quite some of those are being incorporated to the Coordicide already now. The most "controversial" part, though, is the pure on-Tangle voting -- Hans thinks it should work fine while I think that it can be attacked Billy-IF Several of our modules have been devloped jointly with researchers in academia. For example, our rate control module is being developed jointly with professor Robert Shorten **and his team at Imperial College. Moreover,**our team has published several papers in peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings, We are also making sure the entire protocol is audited. First, we have a grant given to Professor Mauro Conti specifcally to vet our solution. you may hear an announcement regarding a similar grant to a second university.Second, eventually will offer bug bounties on our testnet. Lastly, we will hire some firm to audit our software and our protocol. domsch I would say thatthe entire enterprise and also the broader crypto-community is certainly actively following our developments around Coordicide**.** Once that is removed, and with the introduction of Tokenization and Smart Contracts as Layer 2 solutions, there is no reason not to switch to IOTA. there are probably even more who will reach out once we've achieved our objective of being production ready. serguei_popov Our objective is to have Honey ready within the first half of 2021. we are very confident that Coordicide will happen in time. Billy-IF For Chrysalis, we will implement a deposit system. In order for an address to receive dust (which will be explicitly defined as any output with value less than a certain threshold), that address must already have a minimum balance (either 1 MIota or 1 KIota).The total ordering in conflict white flag makes this solution incredibly easy to implement. this solution in the Coordicide needs alterations, because of the lack of total ordering. HusQy_IOTA Sharding is part of IOTA 3.0 and currently still in research. there are of course some hard questions that need to be answered but we are pretty confident that these questions can and will be answered. Billy-IF **Having these layers helps keep the protocol modular and organized.****Indeed,****it is important to be able to track dependencies between the modules, particularly for standardization purposes.As your question suggests, a key component of standardization is the ability to update the standard(no living protocol is completely static).**Standardization will be accompanied by a versioning system, which tracks backwards compatibility. Billy-IF Well, let me try to clear these things up. -The congestion control mechanisms are indifferent to the types of messages in the tangle. Thus non-value transactions (data messages) will be processed in the same way as value transactions (value messages). Thus, in times of congestion, a node will require mana in order to issue either of them. -You will not need mana to simply “set up a node” and monitor the tangle. However, in order to send transactions (or issue any messages) you will need mana in times of congestion. IF_Dave **The next big one is next month:**Odyssey Momentum; This is a huge multi-day DLT focussed hackathon with a lot of teams and big companies/governments involved working on solutions for the future. The IOTA Foundation is a Ecosystem member of Odyssey and we will be virtually present during the hackathon to help and guide teams working with IOTA. Billy-IF Coordicide will not fail. We are working very carefully to make sure that coordicide is a success, and we will not launch Iota 2.0 until it has gone through the proper testing. domsch Everyone internally and also our partners are very confident in the path that we've defined. Failure is not an option for us :) HusQy_IOTA We will most probably see a slight delay and see Nectar early 2021 instead. DavidSonstebo No, IF is not running out of money, this narrative has been repeated for 3 years now, yet we're still operating. Of course, bear markets impact our theoretical runway, but The IOTA Foundation is hard at work at diversifying revenue streams so that we become less and less dependent on the token holdings. IF_Dave We are constantly working on getting more exchanges to list IOTA, we however do not pay for listings Some exchanges require a standard signature scheme with the introduction of ed25519 in Chrysalis phase 2 that will be introduced and no longer be a restriction. HusQy_IOTA Being feeless is one of the most important aspects here since a new technology usually only gets adopted if it is either better or easier to use than existing solutions. if it enables new use cases that would be completely impossible with the existing infrastructure. That is the single biggest reason why I think that IOTA will prevail. An example for such a "new" use case is the Kupcrush use case presented by Terry domsch there are so many amazing use cases enabled with IOTA I would say that****the most specific use cases which gets me really excited is conditional access control based on IOTA payments - in particular for the sharing economy. IOTA Access + IOTA tokens really enable so many exciting new possibilities. Billy-IF In fact, with coordicide research coming to an end, we have already started to look into sharding**.**Indeed, sharding will provide the scalability needed to handle the demands of an IoT enabled world. Billy-IF We have designed Iota 2.0 to not have large concentrations of power. Unlike PoS systems, Iota will not be a block chain and thus will not be limited by a leader election process. in a DAG, people can information in parallel, and so nodes with small amounts of mana can create messages at the same time with large mana holders. Billy-IF **In any DLT, "voting" needs a sybil protection system, and thus "voting power" is linked to some scarce resource.****Typically the allocation of any resource follows some sort of Zipf distribution, meaning that some people will have a lot, and others not.**The best we can do is to make sure that the little guys get their fair share of voting power. HusQy_IOTA With Chrysalis and coordicide we are finally moving to being production ready which will most probably also lead to a bigger market share as partners will start to use the technology which will increase the demand for tokens. HusQy_IOTA Privacy features are currently not being researched and it might be hard to support that on layer1 but privacy features could definitely be implemented as a 2nd layer solution domsch We focus on making the base layer of IOTA (namely transactional settlement) as secure and fast as possible. Many of the greater extensions to this core functionality are built on layer 2 (we already have Streams, Access, Identity and now also Smart Contracts) HusQy_IOTA There are discussions about increasing the supplyto be able to still have micro transactions if the token would i.e. cost a few hundred dollars per MIOTAbut we have not made a final decision, yet. IF_Dave We think we have a edge over other technology especially when it comes to fee-less transactions allowing a lot of use-cases that would otherwise be impractical or impossible.Adoption is not a given but a useful technology will be utilized with the right functionality, DavidSonstebo **why we have such a widespread strategy of driving IOTA, not only its development but in industry, academia, regulatory circles, raising awareness, funding ecosystem efforts etc.**I am confident in the position we are in right now. There is a clear demand for financial disruption, data security, and automation. someone has to assemble a killer application that meets the demand; IF is pushing for this with partners Billy-IF Our goal is to have at least 1000 TPS. Billy-IF Personally, I think our congestion control algorithm is our greatest innovation. our algorithm can be used in any adversarial setting requiring fairness and consistency.Keep an eye out for a blog post that I am writing about it. HusQy_IOTA about proof of inclusion? I have started implementing a proof of concept locally and the required data structures and payload types are already done but we won't be able to integrate this into goshimmer until we are done with the current refactoring of the code. Jakub_Cech **Many of the changes that are part of the Chrysalis would have made it and will make it into Coordicide.**Like the atomic transactions with binary layout. The approach we took was actually opposite - as in, what are the improvements we can already make in the current network without having to wait for Coordicide, and at the same time without disrupting or delaying Coordicide? Billy-IF All the key research questions in coordicide have been answered. in reality, the biggest research challenges are behind us. Jakub_Cech When Chrysalis part 2 will be live? We are still aiming for 2020****as still reflected at roadmap.iota.org. **We want to have a testnet where everyone can test things like the new APIs on, and some initial implementations of specific client libraries****to work with.**This will also allow us to test the node (both Hornet and Bee)implementations more in the wild. The new wallet will also be tested on that testnet. The whole testing phase will be a big endeavor, and, at the same time, we will also start auditing many of the implementations, Billy-IF We are in contact currently with OMG, and they are advising us on how to draft our specifications in order to ease the standardization process. Coordicide, or Iota 2.0, actually provides us a chance to start off with a clean state, since we are building it from the ground up with standardization in mind. IF_Dave The focus at this point is delivering Chrysalis and Coordicide. DeFi could possibly be done with Smart contracts at a given moment but it's not a focus point at this stage. domsch about price? We are quite frankly not worried about that. Knowing everything that we have in the pipeline, our ecosystem and how everything around IOTA will mature over the next few months, I am sure that the entire crypto ecosystem will wake up to IOTA and its potential. **Many participants in the market still have outdated information from 2017 about us, so there is certainly some education to do.**But with Chrysalis and the Coordicide progress, all of that will change. domsch At the core of it, the IOTA Foundation is a leader in trust protocols and digital infrastructure.We will always remain a R&D organization at our core, as there is a lot more development we can lead when it comes to make our society and economy more fair, trustless and autonomous. I certainly see us evolving into a broader think-tank and expert group to advise governments and large corporations on their strategies - in particular around data, identity and IoT. HusQy_IOTA barely any cryptocurrency gets used in the real world. IOTA will soon start to actually be used in real world products and it is likely that this will also have an impact on the price (but I can't really give any details just yet). domsch ISCP (IOTA Smart Contract Protocol) is based on cryptographic consensus via BLS threshold signatures. That means a certain pre-defined amount of key holders have to come together to alter the state of the contract****or to send funds around. **If majority of the nodes are offline, the threshold will not be reached and the contract cannot be executed anymore.**There are various ways in howwe are lookingat this right now onhow to make SC recoveryand easy transitions possible. **The beauty of ISCP is that we have a validator set which you can define (can be 3 or it can be 100+), and via an open selection process we can really ensure that the network will be fully decentralized and permissionless.Every smart contract committee (which will be its own network of course) is leveraging the IOTA ledger for security and to make it fully auditable and tamper-proof.**Which means that if a committee acts wrong, we have cryptographic proof of it and can take certain actions. This makes our approach to smart contracts very elegant, secure and scalable. Billy-IF No, we will not standardize Iota 1.5. Yes, we do hope that standardization will help adoption by making it easier for corporates to learn our tech. serguei_popov In general, I also have to add thatI'm really impressed by the force of our research department, and I think we have the necessary abilities to handle all future challenges that we might be facing. Billy-IF In coordicide, i.e. Iota 2.0, yes all nodes have to process all transactions and must receive all data. Our next major project is sharding, i.e. Iota 3.0 which will remove this requirement, and increase scalability. FPC begins to be vulnerable to attack if the attacker has 30%-40% of the active consensus mana. HusQy_IOTA There is no doubt about coordicide working as envisioned. HusQy_IOTA When will companies fully implement iota tech? Soon(TM) :P Billy-IF Well first, we are going to make sure that we dont need a plan B :) Second, our plans for the actual deployment are still under discussion. Lastly, we will make sure there is some sort of fail safe, e.g. turning the coordinator back on, or something like that. Billy-IF All the key research questions in coordicide have been answered, and each module is designed. Billy-IF What will be standardized is the behavior of the modules, particularly their interactions with other nodes and wallets. Implementation details will not be standardized. The standardization will allow anyone to build a node that can run on the IOTA 2.0 network. DavidSonstebo Tangle EE has its own Slack (private) and calls, so the lack of activity can probably be explained in that fashion. Coordicide will have an impact on all of IOTA :) There's certainly a lot of entities awaiting it, but most will start building already with Chrysalis v2, since it solves most pain points. Billy-IF If there are no conflicts, a message will be confirmed if it receives some approvals. We estimate that this should happen within 10-20 seconds. To resolve a conflict, FPC will typically take another 4 minutes, according to our simulator. Since conflicts will not affect honest users, most transactions will have very short confirmation times. Billy-IF a colored coin supply cannot exceed that of all Iota. You could effectively mint a colored coin supply using a smart contract, although there would be performance downsides. There are no plans to increase the supply.The convergence to binary will not affect the supply nor anyone's balances. HusQy_IOTA Both, Radix and Avalanche have some similarities to IOTA: - Avalanche has a similar voting scheme and also uses a DAG - Radix uses a sharding approach that is similar to IOTAs "fluid sharding" I don't really consider them to compete with our vision since both projects still rely on fees to make the network work. Centralized solution can however never be feeless and being feeless is not just a "nice feature" but absolutely crucial for DLT to succeed in the real world. Having fees makes things a lot easier and Coordicide would already be "done" if we could just use fees but I really believe that it is worth "going the extra mile" and build a system that is able to be better than existing tech.
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Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry pi 4 image for automatically joining Prylabs Onyx Eth2.0 testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator.
TL;DR:Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet. The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet , from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients as well as starting the blockchains synchronization (for both Geth Eth1.0 Goerli  and Prysm  Eth2.0 Beacon Chain). You will only need to create a validator account, send the deposit of 32 Goerli ETH to the Onyx contract and start the validator systemd service. MAIN FEATURES
Based on Ubuntu 20.04 64bit. See 
Automatic USB disk partitioning and formatting
Adds swap memory (ZRAM kernel module + a swap file)
Changes the hostname to something like “ethnode-e2a3e6fe” based on MAC hash
Automatically syncs Eth1 Goerli (Geth) and Eth2 Beacon Chain (Prysm)
Includes an APT repository for installing and upgrading Ethereum software
Includes a monitoring dashboard based on Grafana / Prometheus
Geth: 1.9.15  (official binary) configured for syncing Goerli Testnets
Prysm: 1.0.0alpha13 
Beacon Chain (official binary)
Validator binary (official binary)
Grafana 7.0.4 
INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE
RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
Raspberry 4 (model B) - 4GB or 8GB ((GB highly recommended)
MicroSD Card (16 GB Class 10 minimum)
SSD USB 3.0 disk (see storage section)
30303 Port forwarding (Eth 1.0) and 13000 port forwarding (Eth 2.0)
A case with heatsink and fan (Optional but strongly recommended)
USB keyboard, Monitor and HDMI cable (micro-HDMI) (Optional)
STORAGE You will need and SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options:
Use an USB portable SSD disk such as the Samsung T5 Portable SSD.
Use an USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Case with a SSD Disk. In our case we used a Inateck 2.5 Hard Drive Enclosure FE2011. Make sure to buy a case with an UASP compliant chip, particularly, one of these: JMicron (JMS567 or JMS578) or ASMedia (ASM1153E).
In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of you node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue). IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION 1.- Download the image: http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-onyx.img.zip SHA256 13bc7ac4de6e18093b99213511791b2a24b659727b22a8a8d44f583e73a507cc 2.- Flash the image Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file: Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher  Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running:
sudo fdisk -l
You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image:
3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port). 4.- Power on the device The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to join the Onyx testnet (it will reboot again) 5.- Log in You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice. 6.- Forward 30303 and 13000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model. 7.- Getting console output You can see what’s happening in the background by typing:
sudo tail -f /valog/syslog
7.- Grafana Dashboards There are 2 Grafana dashboards to monitor the node (see section “Grafana Dashboards below”. See 
The Onyx Eth2.0 testnet
Onyx is an Eth2.0 testnet created by Prylabs according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.1  release (which is aimed to be the final). In order to run an Onyx Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
An Eth1.0 node (Goerli testnet in sync)
An Eth2.0 Beacon Chain (Prysm Beacon Chain in sync) connected to the Eth1.0 node
An Eth2.0 Validator (Prysm Validator) connected to the Beacon Chain
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 Geth and Eth2.0 Beacon Chain configurations and syncs. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts syncing the Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain (Eth2.0 client) gets activated through the Prysm client, both as systemd services. When the Goerli testnet sync is completed, the Beacon Chain starts syncing. Both chains are necessary as the validator needs to communicate with them (as explained below). Activating the validator Once Goerli and the Beacon chain are in sync you have just one task left, configure the Validator for enabling the staking process. The image provides the Prysm validator client for running the staking process. With this validator, you will create an account with 2 keys (public and private) and get an HEX string that needs to be sent to the Eth 1.0 blockchain as data through a 32 ETH transaction. The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (which includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be activated. So, let’s get started. Geth Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain are already syncing in the background. Goerli will sync in about 1 hour and the Beacon Chain in about 2 hours (so this will take 3 hours overall). The easiest way to enable a Prysm validator is to use the Prylabs web portal to get Goerli ETH (testnet ETH) and follow their instructions: https://prylabs.net/participate Let’s break this down: Step 1) Get Prysm Nothing to do here. Prysm is already installed. Step 2) Get GöETH — Test ETH We need 32 ETH to stake (it is fake ETH as this is a tesnet). Prylabs created a faucet with a great UI so you can easily get 32.5 Goerli ETH. You will need a web3 provider to use the faucet. Install Metamask browser extension (if you don’t have it running yet). Create an account and set the network to “Goerli test network” (on the top of the Metamask screen). Now, click once in “Metamask” and then click “Need GoETH?” button. Confirm the transaction. Once funded, you will see something like this:
You are 0x0b2eFdbFB8EcaF7F4eCF6853cbd5eaD86510d63C and you have 32.5 GöETH.
Step 3). Generate a validator public / private key Go to your Raspberry Pi console and run the following command (make sure you are logged in with your ethereum user):
validator accounts create
Press return to confirm the default path Enter a password twice (you will need it later to run the validator so write it down and be careful). Once finished, your account will be created (under the /home/ethereum/.eth2validators directory) containing, among other info, your validator keys. Additionally you will get the deposit data as follows (this is an example):
========================Deposit Data======================= 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 =================================================================== ***Enter the above deposit data into step 3 on https://prylabs.net/participate***
Copy this data (just the hexadecimal part, from 0x to the last number), go back to step 3 of Prylabs website and paste it into the field “Your validator deposit data”. Step 4) Start your beacon chain & validator clients Beacon chain is already running in the background so let’s configure the validator. Just edit the /etc/ethereum/prysm-validator.conf file and replace “changeme” string with your password (you can use nano or vim editors). Now run:
Step 5) Send a validator deposit We are almost there. Just click the “Make deposit” button and confirm the transaction. Done! Now you need to wait for the validator to get activated. In time, the beacon chain will detect the 32 ETH deposit (which contains the validator public key) and the system will put your validator in queue. These are the validator status that you will see during the activation process:
DEPOSITED (the beacon chain detected the 32 ETH deposit with your validator public key)
PENDING (you are in a queue for being activated)
We configured 2 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 progress. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
New England New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/ NewEnglandcoin Symbol: NENG NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones. Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt. 1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377 NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs. The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity. MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software. Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%. NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones. Youtube Video Tutorial How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG. We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange. Twitter Airdrop Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners Graphic Redesign Bounty Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form. Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues. Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1 Milestones
Sep 3, 2018 - Genesis block was mined, NewEnglandcoin created
Sep 8, 2018 - github source uploaded, Window wallet development work started
Sep 11,2018 - Window Qt Graphic wallet completed
Sep 12,2018 - NewEnglandcoin Launched in both Bitcointalk forum and Marinecoin forum
Sep 14,2018 - NewEnglandcoin is listed at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Sep 17,2018 - Block Explorer is up
Nov 23,2018 - New Source/Wallet Release v1.1.1 - Enabled Dynamic Addjustment on Mining Hashing Difficulty
Nov 28,2018 - NewEnglandcoin became CPU minable coin
Nov 30,2018 - First Retail Real Life usage for NewEnglandcoin Announced
Dec 28,2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Linux is released
Dec 31,2018 - NENG Technical Whitepaper is released
Jan 2,2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Windows is released
Jan 12,2019 - NENG v1.1.2 is released to support MacOS GUI CLI Wallet
Jan 13,2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner under Mac is released
Feb 11,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork
Mar 16,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v220.127.116.11 Released - Ubuntu 18.04 Wallet Binary Files
Apr 7, 2019 - NENG Report on Security, Decentralization, Valuation
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Sep 1, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot v1.0 is Released by ShorelineCrypto
Jan 30, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0 Hardfork Proposed
Feb 24, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Released
Jun 19, 2020 - Linux scripts for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining Released
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining and Ubuntu 20.04 support
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v18.104.22.168 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade with Catalina
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v22.214.171.124 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v126.96.36.199 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade, Chromebook Support
Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v188.8.131.52 Released for Android/Chromebook with armhf, better hardware support
2018 Q3 - Birth of NewEnglandcoin, window/linux wallet - Done
2018 Q4 - Decentralization Phase I
Blockchain Upgrade - Dynamic hashing algorithm I - Done
Cheetah Version I- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Linux - Done
2019 Q1 - Decentralization Phase II
Cheetah Version II- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Window/Linux - Done
Blockchain Upgrade Dynamic hashing algorithm II - Done
2019 Q2 - Fiat Phase I
Assessment of Risk of 51% Attack on NENG - done
Launch of Fiat USD/NENG offering for U.S. residents - done
Initiation of Mobile Miner Project - Done
2019 Q3 - Shoreline Tradingbot, Mobile Project
Evaluation and planning of Mobile Miner Project - on Hold
Initiation of Trading Bot Project - Done
2019 Q4 - Shoreline Tradingbot
Shoreline tradingbot Release v1.0 - Done
2020 Q1 - Evaluate NENG core, Mobile Wallet Phase I
NENG core Decentralization Security Evaluation for v1.3.x - Done
Light Mobile Wallet Project Initiation, Evaluation
2020 Q2 - NENG Core, Mobile Wallet Phase II
NENG core Decentralization Security Hardfork on v1.3.x - Scrypt RandomSpike
Light Mobile Wallet Project Design, Coding
2020 Q3 - NENG core, NENG Mobile Wallet Phase II
Review on results of v1.3.x, NENG core Dev Decision on v1.4.x, Hardfork If needed
Light Mobile Wallet Project testing, alpha Release
2020 Q4 - Mobile Wallet Phase III
Light Mobile Wallet Project Beta Release
Light Mobile Wallet Server Deployment Evaluation and Decision
Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers
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The Regulated Binary Brokers Regulation and licensing is a key factor when judging the best broker. Unregulated brokers are not always scams, or untrustworthy, but it does mean a trader must do more ‘due diligence’ before trading with them. A regulated broker is the safest option. Regulators - Leading regulatory bodies include:
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Vertextrades.com Review: 2%-3.5% each working day for 50-75 working days
Vertextrades.com is a high yield investment program which provides long term deposit plans. It started on 26th May 2020. You can get 2%-3.5% each working day for 50–75 working days, this program provides profitable rewards for promoters. I listed it into Standard listing. My first withdrawal request was already processed successfully into my PerfectMoney wallet yesterday. Now let me introduce it to you. Started: 2020–05–26 My Deposit: $200
The amount of 200 USD has been withdrawn from your account. Accounts: U3869878->U21524869. Memo: Shopping Cart Payment. . Date: 13:10 19.06.20. Batch: 319883157.
Invest $30–5000, earn 2% each working day for 75 working days and principal included Invest $5001–10000, earn 2.25% each working day for 70 working days and principal included Invest $10001–20000, earn 2.5% each working day for 65 working days and principal included Invest $20001–100000, earn 3.5% each working day for 50 working days and principal included
These are all the plans Vertextrades.com provides. Since trading takes place only 5 days a week, you will receive return on investment from Monday to Friday. I think the most suitable plan is the first one for all investors, because you only need $30 to start your investment journey. Let me take an example: if you deposit $100, then you can earn 2% daily from Monday to Friday, and you can withdrawal or reinvest the money at any time as your willings. After 75 working days, you will earn $150 totally and initial deposit included. That is to say, your net profit will be $50. Promotional Rewards
Referral Bonus Existing clients can earn referral bonus by introducing new clients. Vertextrades.com pays 10% referral bonus if the person whom you have referred makes a deposit. Referral bonus is paid instantly. Even the accounts that are not having active deposit are eligible to get referral bonus. The referral bonus will be credited directly to the E-wallet upon the completion of the registration and investment process of the members present down the line. Binary Matching Bonus Binary matching bonus will be credited only to the accounts with active deposits. Binary matching income is calculated every 24 hours. Please refer the binary chart for different binary matching slabs.
In binary plan, the new clients are placed below the introducer (referrer) to the left or right side (left or right sub-tree). The tree of a Binary Network Plan will have two legs-left and right; but if a member recruits more than two, then the additional member will be added to the next member down-line. This concept allows the additional member to be shared with down-line member (power leg) and the one who recruited them. This is referred to as spillover. With respect to profit leg, there won’t be a spillover as the profit leg will be expanded with individually sponsored downlines. The binary plan is mostly quantity oriented and not based on the levels. If you register through my personal link, then 10% of your deposit amount will be transferred back to your personal wallet. So don’t forget to submit your RCB request from top menu section on my website, I will transfer the money to you once admin processes my withdrawal request. Payment Options Vertextrades.com accepts PerfectMoney, Payeer, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, BitcoinCash. Please remember that Bitcoin Payment takes 6 Confirmation in Blockchain. After Bitcoin deposit, it might take anywhere from 1 minute to 3 hours for the funds to be credited in your Vertex Trades account. Withdrawal Type The withdrawal processing time after withdrawal request is 48 hours, and the minimum withdrawal amount is 10 USD. Vertextrades.com charges a total of 10% withdrawal fee while transferring the funds from Vertex Trades E- wallet to your e-currency account. However, no fee is charged for internal transfer, i.e., transfer of funds from one Vertex Trades Account Balance to another Vertex Trades Account Balance, so you can use the internal transfer instead of withdrawal function to save the 10% fee. But remember that only use this function with your trusted friends to keep your money safe. Whois Information
Domain Registration: 2020/01/23–2023/01/23 IP Address: 184.108.40.206–1,541 other sites hosted on this server IP Location: California — Menifee — Sucuri ASN: AS30148 SUCURI-SEC, US (registered Feb 13, 2015)
Summary Vertextrades.com runs its website on an original template, and it now supportes 20 languages. Like most projects, admin also registered a UK company called “VERTEX TRADES LTD”, and you can check its certificate clicking here. From its investment plan, we can know that its profit is not too high, but from its promotional rewards, we can see profitable rewards for promoters. From the picture below, we can see that there is only 8 monitors although it has already operated for 92 days, maybe admin has his own promotional methods. If you have more questions, you can contact admin through its online chat box or the contact info I wrote below. Contact Info
The offshore FX and CFDs broker KONTOFX has its focus on binary trading options. It offers a number of binary assets for trading on an oversimplified trading platform. It also offers maximum leverage of a 1:200. Before considering this broker for trading please follow our scam broker KONTOFX review.
About the KONTOFX:
The broker offers binary options of more than 20 cryptocurrencies from popular Bitcoin to Ethereum and many more. The minimum investment of $250 is needed to start trading with KONTOFX. This minimum deposit is in accordance with the current market situation but several regulated brokers provide the same services at the cost of $ 5. The Estonian firm NTMT Transformatic Markets OU is the owner of KONTORFX and the operations are handled by Northside Business Centres located in Hungary. It has also another office located in Moscow, Russia that manages clients outside of the EU. To offer its services in the EU any Estonian firm required to be regulated by Finantsinspektsioon the local Financial Supervision Authority. When checked with Finantsinspektsioon there is no evidence of this broker’s registration. The terms and conditions section of this brokers mentions that the broker is not bound to process withdrawal requests made by the traders. Meaning that the profits gained by the traders can not be withdrawn. This condition is utter nonsense as traders do trading to earn profit and use them as per their convenience. The available spread at KONTOFX on bitcoin-us dollar pair is around $170 that is higher. On the contrary, the information on the website talks about low spreads at 0.6 pips. The offered leverage is up to the ratio of 1:200. When tried to test the provided trading platform we came across very few CFDs offered on binary options and not at all on other commodities. This means the broker is advertising itself falsely as the leader in binary and other commodities CFDs providers. The payments are entertained only with cards and all other means of payments are unavailable. As mentioned earlier this broker does not provide world-leading MetaTrader platform. Instead offers to trade on some unproven web-based terminal. The fact of worry about this broker is, there is warning issued against it by the Financial Conduct Authority, UK.
Is KONTOFX legit or scam?
The offshore broker KONTOFX makes false claims every now and then. The terms and conditions of this broker are very strange. The broker KONTOFX is unregulated and unlicensed and has a high risk of fund loss. All in all this broker can be a potential Forex scam broker. Avoid it for the safety of your investments.
In order to create an account on BitMEX, users first have to register with the website. Registration only requires an email address, the email address must be a genuine address as users will receive an email to confirm registration in order to verify the account. Once users are registered, there are no trading limits. Traders must be at least 18 years of age to sign up. https://preview.redd.it/0v13qoil3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e6134bc089c4e352dce10d754dc84ff11a4c7994 However, it should be noted that BitMEX does not accept any US-based traders and will use IP checks to verify that users are not in the US. While some US users have bypassed this with the use of a VPN, it is not recommended that US individuals sign up to the BitMEX service, especially given the fact that alternative exchanges are available to service US customers that function within the US legal framework. How to Use BitMEX BitMEX allows users to trade cryptocurrencies against a number of fiat currencies, namely the US Dollar, the Japanese Yen and the Chinese Yuan. BitMEX allows users to trade a number of different cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Dash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Litecoin, Monero, Ripple, Tezos and Zcash. The trading platform on BitMEX is very intuitive and easy to use for those familiar with similar markets. However, it is not for the beginner. The interface does look a little dated when compared to newer exchanges like Binance and Kucoin’s. Once users have signed up to the platform, they should click on Trade, and all the trading instruments will be displayed beneath. Clicking on the particular instrument opens the orderbook, recent trades, and the order slip on the left. The order book shows three columns – the bid value for the underlying asset, the quantity of the order, and the total USD value of all orders, both short and long. The widgets on the trading platform can be changed according to the user’s viewing preferences, allowing users to have full control on what is displayed. It also has a built in feature that provides for TradingView charting. This offers a wide range of charting tool and is considered to be an improvement on many of the offering available from many of its competitors. https://preview.redd.it/fabg1nxo3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6d939889c3eac15ab1e78ec37a8ccd13fc5e0573 Once trades are made, all orders can be easily viewed in the trading platform interface. There are tabs where users can select their Active Orders, see the Stops that are in place, check the Orders Filled (total or partially) and the trade history. On the Active Orders and Stops tabs, traders can cancel any order, by clicking the “Cancel” button. Users also see all currently open positions, with an analysis if it is in the black or red. BitMEX uses a method called auto-deleveraging which BitMEX uses to ensure that liquidated positions are able to be closed even in a volatile market. Auto-deleveraging means that if a position bankrupts without available liquidity, the positive side of the position deleverages, in order of profitability and leverage, the highest leveraged position first in queue. Traders are always shown where they sit in the auto-deleveraging queue, if such is needed. Although the BitMEX platform is optimized for mobile, it only has an Android app (which is not official). There is no iOS app available at present. However, it is recommended that users use it on the desktop if possible. BitMEX offers a variety of order types for users:
Limit Order (the order is fulfilled if the given price is achieved);
Market Order (the order is executed at current market price);
Stop Limit Order (like a stop order, but allows users to set the price of the Order once the Stop Price is triggered);
Stop Market Order (this is a stop order that does not enter the order book, remain unseen until the market reaches the trigger);
Trailing Stop Order (it is similar to a Stop Market order, but here users set a trailing value that is used to place the market order);
Take Profit Limit Order (this can be used, similarly to a Stop Order, to set a target price on a position. In this case, it is in respect of making gains, rather than cutting losses);
Take Profit Market Order (same as the previous type, but in this case, the order triggered will be a market order, and not a limit one)
The exchange offers margin trading in all of the cryptocurrencies displayed on the website. It also offers to trade with futures and derivatives – swaps.
Futures and Swaps
A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a given asset in the future at a predetermined price. On BitMEX, users can leverage up to 100x on certain contracts. Perpetual swaps are similar to futures, except that there is no expiry date for them and no settlement. Additionally, they trade close to the underlying reference Index Price, unlike futures, which may diverge substantially from the Index Price. BitMEX also offers Binary series contracts, which are prediction-based contracts which can only settle at either 0 or 100. In essence, the Binary series contracts are a more complicated way of making a bet on a given event. The only Binary series betting instrument currently available is related to the next 1mb block on the Bitcoin blockchain. Binary series contracts are traded with no leverage, a 0% maker fee, a 0.25% taker fee and 0.25% settlement fee.
BitMEX allows its traders to leverage their position on the platform. Leverage is the ability to place orders that are bigger than the users’ existing balance. This could lead to a higher profit in comparison when placing an order with only the wallet balance. Trading in such conditions is called “Margin Trading.” There are two types of Margin Trading: Isolated and Cross-Margin. The former allows the user to select the amount of money in their wallet that should be used to hold their position after an order is placed. However, the latter provides that all of the money in the users’ wallet can be used to hold their position, and therefore should be treated with extreme caution. https://preview.redd.it/eg4qk9qr3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c3ca8cdf654330ce53e8138d774e72155acf0e7e The BitMEX platform allows users to set their leverage level by using the leverage slider. A maximum leverage of 1:100 is available (on Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash). This is quite a high level of leverage for cryptocurrencies, with the average offered by other exchanges rarely exceeding 1:20.
BitMEX does not charge fees on deposits or withdrawals. However, when withdrawing Bitcoin, the minimum Network fee is based on blockchain load. The only costs therefore are those of the banks or the cryptocurrency networks. As noted previously, BitMEX only accepts deposits in Bitcoin and therefore Bitcoin serves as collateral on trading contracts, regardless of whether or not the trade involves Bitcoin. The minimum deposit is 0.001 BTC. There are no limits on withdrawals, but withdrawals can also be in Bitcoin only. To make a withdrawal, all that users need to do is insert the amount to withdraw and the wallet address to complete the transfer. https://preview.redd.it/xj1kbuew3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=68056f2247001c63e89c880cfbb75b2f3616e8fe Deposits can be made 24/7 but withdrawals are processed by hand at a recurring time once per day. The hand processed withdrawals are intended to increase the security levels of users’ funds by providing extra time (and email notice) to cancel any fraudulent withdrawal requests, as well as bypassing the use of automated systems & hot wallets which may be more prone to compromise.
BitMEX operates as a crypto to crypto exchange and makes use of a Bitcoin-in/Bitcoin-out structure. Therefore, platform users are currently unable to use fiat currencies for any payments or transfers, however, a plus side of this is that there are no limits for trading and the exchange incorporates trading pairs linked to the US Dollar (XBT), Japanese Yen (XBJ), and Chinese Yuan (XBC). BitMEX supports the following cryptocurrencies:
Bitcoin Cash (BCH)
Ethereum Classic (ETC)
Ripple Token (XRP)
EOS Token (EOS)
BitMEX also offers leverage options on the following coins:
5x: Zcash (ZEC)
20x : Ripple (XRP),Bitcoin Cash (BCH), Cardano (ADA), EOS Token (EOS), Tron (TRX)
HDR Global Trading, the company which owns BitMEX, has recently announced a partnership with Trading Technologies International, Inc. (TT), a leading international high-performance trading software provider. The TT platform is designed specifically for professional traders, brokers, and market-access providers, and incorporates a wide variety of trading tools and analytical indicators that allow even the most advanced traders to customize the software to suit their unique trading styles. The TT platform also provides traders with global market access and trade execution through its privately managed infrastructure and the partnership will see BitMEX users gaining access to the trading tools on all BitMEX products, including the popular XBT/USD Perpetual Swap pairing. https://preview.redd.it/qcqunaby3cc41.png?width=672&format=png&auto=webp&s=b77b45ac2b44a9af30a4985e3d9dbafc9bbdb77c
The BitMEX Insurance Fund
The ability to trade on leverage is one of the exchange’s main selling points and offering leverage and providing the opportunity for traders to trade against each other may result in a situation where the winners do not receive all of their expected profits. As a result of the amounts of leverage involved, it’s possible that the losers may not have enough margin in their positions to pay the winners. Traditional exchanges like the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) offset this problem by utilizing multiple layers of protection and cryptocurrency trading platforms offering leverage cannot currently match the levels of protection provided to winning traders. In addition, cryptocurrency exchanges offering leveraged trades propose a capped downside and unlimited upside on a highly volatile asset with the caveat being that on occasion, there may not be enough funds in the system to pay out the winners. To help solve this problem, BitMEX has developed an insurance fund system, and when a trader has an open leveraged position, their position is forcefully closed or liquidated when their maintenance margin is too low. Here, a trader’s profit and loss does not reflect the actual price their position was closed on the market, and with BitMEX when a trader is liquidated, their equity associated with the position drops down to zero. In the following example, the trader has taken a 100x long position. In the event that the mark price of Bitcoin falls to $3,980 (by 0.5%), then the position gets liquidated with the 100 Bitcoin position needing to be sold on the market. This means that it does not matter what price this trade executes at, namely if it’s $3,995 or $3,000, as from the view of the liquidated trader, regardless of the price, they lose all the equity they had in their position, and lose the entire one Bitcoin. https://preview.redd.it/wel3rka04cc41.png?width=669&format=png&auto=webp&s=3f93dac2d3b40aa842d281384113d2e26f25947e Assuming there is a fully liquid market, the bid/ask spread should be tighter than the maintenance margin. Here, liquidations manifest as contributions to the insurance fund (e.g. if the maintenance margin is 50bps, but the market is 1bp wide), and the insurance fund should rise by close to the same amount as the maintenance margin when a position is liquidated. In this scenario, as long as healthy liquid markets persist, the insurance fund should continue its steady growth. The following graphs further illustrate the example, and in the first chart, market conditions are healthy with a narrow bid/ask spread (just $2) at the time of liquidation. Here, the closing trade occurs at a higher price than the bankruptcy price (the price where the margin balance is zero) and the insurance fund benefits. Illustrative example of an insurance contribution – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral https://preview.redd.it/is89ep924cc41.png?width=699&format=png&auto=webp&s=f0419c68fe88703e594c121b5b742c963c7e2229 (Note: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments. The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,978, representing $1 of slippage compared to the $3,979 bid price at the time of liquidation.) The second chart shows a wide bid/ask spread at the time of liquidation, here, the closing trade takes place at a lower price than the bankruptcy price, and the insurance fund is used to make sure that winning traders receive their expected profits. This works to stabilize the potential for returns as there is no guarantee that healthy market conditions can continue, especially during periods of heightened price volatility. During these periods, it’s actually possible that the insurance fund can be used up than it is built up. Illustrative example of an insurance depletion – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral https://preview.redd.it/vb4mj3n54cc41.png?width=707&format=png&auto=webp&s=0c63b7c99ae1c114d8e3b947fb490e9144dfe61b (Notes: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments. The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,800, representing $20 of slippage compared to the $3,820 bid price at the time of liquidation.) The exchange declared in February 2019, that the BitMEX insurance fund retained close to 21,000 Bitcoin (around $70 million based on Bitcoin spot prices at the time). This figure represents just 0.007% of BitMEX’s notional annual trading volume, which has been quoted as being approximately $1 trillion. This is higher than the insurance funds as a proportion of trading volume of the CME, and therefore, winning traders on BitMEX are exposed to much larger risks than CME traders as:
BitMEX does not have clearing members with large balance sheets and traders are directly exposed to each other.
BitMEX does not demand payments from traders with negative account balances.
The underlying instruments on BitMEX are more volatile than the more traditional instruments available on CME.
Therefore, with the insurance fund remaining capitalized, the system effectively with participants who get liquidated paying for liquidations, or a losers pay for losers mechanism. This system may appear controversial as first, though some may argue that there is a degree of uniformity to it. It’s also worth noting that the exchange also makes use of Auto Deleveraging which means that on occasion, leveraged positions in profit can still be reduced during certain time periods if a liquidated order cannot be executed in the market. More adventurous traders should note that while the insurance fund holds 21,000 Bitcoin, worth approximately 0.1% of the total Bitcoin supply, BitMEX still doesn’t offer the same level of guarantees to winning traders that are provided by more traditional leveraged trading platforms. Given the inherent volatility of the cryptocurrency market, there remains some possibility that the fund gets drained down to zero despite its current size. This may result in more successful traders lacking confidence in the platform and choosing to limit their exposure in the event of BitMEX being unable to compensate winning traders.
How suitable is BitMEX for Beginners?
BitMEX generates high Bitcoin trading levels, and also attracts good levels of volume across other crypto-to-crypto transfers. This helps to maintain a buzz around the exchange, and BitMEX also employs relatively low trading fees, and is available round the world (except to US inhabitants). This helps to attract the attention of people new to the process of trading on leverage and when getting started on the platform there are 5 main navigation Tabs to get used to:
**Trade:**The trading dashboard of BitMEX. This tab allows you to select your preferred trading instrument, and choose leverage, as well as place and cancel orders. You can also see your position information and view key information in the contract details.
**Account:**Here, all your account information is displayed including available Bitcoin margin balances, deposits and withdrawals, and trade history.
**Contracts:**This tab covers further instrument information including funding history, contract sizes; leverage offered expiry, underlying reference Price Index data, and other key features.
**References:**This resource centre allows you to learn about futures, perpetual contracts, position marking, and liquidation.
**API:**From here you can set up an API connection with BitMEX, and utilize the REST API and WebSocket API.
BitMEX also employs 24/7 customer support and the team can also be contacted on their Twitter and Reddit accounts. In addition, BitMEX provides a variety of educational resources including an FAQ section, Futures guides, Perpetual Contracts guides, and further resources in the “References” account tab. For users looking for more in depth analysis, the BitMEX blog produces high level descriptions of a number of subjects and has garnered a good reputation among the cryptocurrency community. Most importantly, the exchange also maintains a testnet platform, built on top of testnet Bitcoin, which allows anyone to try out programs and strategies before moving on to the live exchange. This is crucial as despite the wealth of resources available, BitMEX is not really suitable for beginners, and margin trading, futures contracts and swaps are best left to experienced, professional or institutional traders. Margin trading and choosing to engage in leveraged activity are risky processes and even more advanced traders can describe the process as a high risk and high reward “game”. New entrants to the sector should spend a considerable amount of time learning about margin trading and testing out strategies before considering whether to open a live account.
Is BitMEX Safe?
BitMEX is widely considered to have strong levels of security. The platform uses multi-signature deposits and withdrawal schemes which can only be used by BitMEX partners. BitMEX also utilises Amazon Web Services to protect the servers with text messages and two-factor authentication, as well as hardware tokens. BitMEX also has a system for risk checks, which requires that the sum of all account holdings on the website must be zero. If it’s not, all trading is immediately halted. As noted previously, withdrawals are all individually hand-checked by employees, and private keys are never stored in the cloud. Deposit addresses are externally verified to make sure that they contain matching keys. If they do not, there is an immediate system shutdown. https://preview.redd.it/t04qs3484cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3b106cbc9116713dcdd5e908c00b555fd704ee6 In addition, the BitMEX trading platform is written in kdb+, a database and toolset popular amongst major banks in high frequency trading applications. The BitMEX engine appears to be faster and more reliable than some of its competitors, such as Poloniex and Bittrex. They have email notifications, and PGP encryption is used for all communication. The exchange hasn’t been hacked in the past.
How Secure is the platform?
As previously mentioned, BitMEX is considered to be a safe exchange and incorporates a number of security protocols that are becoming standard among the sector’s leading exchanges. In addition to making use of Amazon Web Services’ cloud security, all the exchange’s systems can only be accessed after passing through multiple forms of authentication, and individual systems are only able to communicate with each other across approved and monitored channels. Communication is also further secured as the exchange provides optional PGP encryption for all automated emails, and users can insert their PGP public key into the form inside their accounts. Once set up, BitMEX will encrypt and sign all the automated emails sent by you or to your account by the [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) email address. Users can also initiate secure conversations with the support team by using the email address and public key on the Technical Contact, and the team have made their automated system’s PGP key available for verification in their Security Section. The platform’s trading engine is written in kdb+, a database and toolset used by leading financial institutions in high-frequency trading applications, and the speed and reliability of the engine is also used to perform a full risk check after every order placement, trade, settlement, deposit, and withdrawal. All accounts in the system must consistently sum to zero, and if this does not happen then trading on the platform is immediately halted for all users. With regards to wallet security, BitMEX makes use of a multisignature deposit and withdrawal scheme, and all exchange addresses are multisignature by default with all storage being kept offline. Private keys are not stored on any cloud servers and deep cold storage is used for the majority of funds. Furthermore, all deposit addresses sent by the BitMEX system are verified by an external service that works to ensure that they contain the keys controlled by the founders, and in the event that the public keys differ, the system is immediately shut down and trading halted. The exchange’s security practices also see that every withdrawal is audited by hand by a minimum of two employees before being sent out.
BitMEX Customer Support
The trading platform has a 24/7 support on multiple channels, including email, ticket systems and social media. The typical response time from the customer support team is about one hour, and feedback on the customer support generally suggest that the customer service responses are helpful and are not restricted to automated responses. https://preview.redd.it/8k81zl0a4cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e30e5b7ca93d2931f49e2dc84025f2fda386eab1 The BitMEX also offers a knowledge base and FAQs which, although they are not necessarily always helpful, may assist and direct users towards the necessary channels to obtain assistance. BitMEX also offers trading guides which can be accessed here
There would appear to be few complaints online about BitMEX, with most issues relating to technical matters or about the complexities of using the website. Older complaints also appeared to include issues relating to low liquidity, but this no longer appears to be an issue. BitMEX is clearly not a platform that is not intended for the amateur investor. The interface is complex and therefore it can be very difficult for users to get used to the platform and to even navigate the website. However, the platform does provide a wide range of tools and once users have experience of the platform they will appreciate the wide range of information that the platform provides. Visit BitMEX
What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
The Nexus Currency:
How can I get Nexus?
How much does a transaction cost?
How fast does Nexus transfer?
Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
Types of Mining or Minting:
Can I mine Nexus?
How do I mine Nexus?
How do I stake Nexus?
I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
1. What is Nexus (NXS)? Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world. For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space? As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Quantum computing vulnerability
Centralized network access
Slow difficulty adjustment
Slow block times
Block reward halving
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
LLC (Lower Level Cryptography): This is a suite of cutting edge cryptographic methods including hashing, asymmetric encryption, digital signatures, and symmetric encryption algorithms
LLP (Lower Level Protocol): This is a template protocol to allow any protocol to be created with ease without the need for repeated network programming.
LLD (Lower Level Database): This is a set of templates for creating high efficiency database systems. This high efficiency can be used to power large websites, which are currently built with database software that is not designed to scale.
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus? Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels. Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it? To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0. Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states. Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously. Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly. One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys: Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen. Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code. This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security. The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash. To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
5. What is the Unified Time protocol? All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution. The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected. It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network? One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population. Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
The Nexus Currency (NXS):
1. How can I get Nexus? There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below. Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Bittrex (99% of trade volume)
Upbit (South Korea)
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
2. How much does a transaction cost? Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly. When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
3. How fast does Nexus transfer? Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded? The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy. The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks. The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites. When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust. Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence? After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events. When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees. Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet? Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency. The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet? Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet. Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup. Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2. Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet? You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps: Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system. Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB. On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location. Using Windows, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu. Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2. Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet. Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions. Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it. You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
Types of Mining or Minting:
1.Can I mine Nexus? Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting: Prime Mining Channel This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU. Hashing Channel This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU. Proof of Stake (nPoS) Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
2. How do I mine Nexus? As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available. Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
Prime Mining: Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet? Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only. Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder. Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing. It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file: "experimental" : "true" This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate. Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
Hashing: The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability. The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner. Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder. Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet. For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
3. How do I stake Nexus? Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
Choosing Unlock Wallet from the Settings menu
Check the box that says "Unlock for Mint Only", then enter your password.
When the question mark at the lower right of the wallet window changes to a clock icon, you are now staking.
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active. IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight? These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values. Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction. Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%. With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking. Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases. Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction). This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions. Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
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